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But for Gilded Age Republicans, in the words of historian Edmund Morris, protectionism was “the holiest tenet of the party faith.” “Who are the consumers?” scoffed Republican Sen. Nelson Aldrich of Rhode Island during the 1909 tariff debate, “Is there any class except a very limited one that consumes and does not produce? And why are they entitled to greater consideration?” Aldrich was on the defensive because by 1909, the Republican Party’s protectionist consensus had begun to fray. Much of the public was chafing at the steep tariffs enacted by President William McKinley in 1897, especially those in the Midwest, far away from Eastern industrialists. In 1902, Iowa’s governor Albert Cummins roiled his fellow Republicans when he used the state party platform to popularize the idea that tariffs should not protect monopolistic trusts. Cheap real ugg boot,President Teddy Roosevelt sensed the populist momentum building for tariff reform, but lacked a passion for it, calling it an issue “of expediency and not morality” since “there is nothing more intrinsically right or wrong in a 40 percent tariff than in a 60 percent one.” It was not worth testing the bounds of party unity. So he ducked it. After 12 years of heavy tariffs weighing on the public, Taft concluded he didn’t have the luxury of procrastination. Having a progressive bent but a conservative soul, he sought to gently nudge his party toward “downward revision.” Taft began his presidency taking the tariff issue head-on and calling Congress into a special session, where a pitched battle awaited. The House and Senate were led by “Old Guard” protectionist Republicans like Senator Aldrich, but the progressive “insurgent” Republican faction was tenacious and could potentially forge majority coalitions with congressional Democrats. Cheap real uggs,Taft angered the progressives from the start, rejecting an attempt to oust the conservative, high-handed House Speaker Joe Cannon. The insurgents “lacked votes and a plausible alternative,” noted Taft historian Lewis Gould, and Taft didn’t see the point in alienating the legislative gatekeepers. So Taft let Cannon and his House ally Rep. Sereno Payne, along with Senator Aldrich, take the lead in drafting the tariff bill.,ugg boots outlet, @ugg boots uk sale outlet 891 @uggs leighton 849 @uggs kit 159 @ugg boots 70 off 531$100-893.html @ugg boots $100 893